2017-03-08 10:49

托克维尔,但是,认为太多的自由是危险的、对个人和社会应该“规范它的信仰、习俗和法律”[ 44 ]。法律的社会意义,可以通过分析其概念结构,既是“规定性和技术性”和“关注的社会关系的重要形式的全系列”[ 45 ]。从布朗为应受谴责的行为可以实现其普适性方面的责任相关的区别,即被告打算对对方造成伤害,或标准在客观指责公众的愤怒,即被告的行为会被社会接受,被告认为应该意识到这个事实。这种客观性需要区分时,伤害可能成为刑事犯罪,涉及剩余的特权,维护公共安全和社会秩序的[ 46 ]的道德福利,称之为“实用艺术政府通过规则”[ 47 ]。 它已被观察到,“…法律必须有一个最低限度的道德内容,如果他们为他们的功能条款”[ 48 ],情况显示在一个现在已经过时的附带意见的Denning勋爵在1960,反映公共精神对当时的输精管切除术,尽管事实上12年后来,国民健康服务(计划生育)1972修正案通过输精管结扎术操作进行避孕的目的:


Tocqueville, however, considered that too much liberty was dangerous for the individual, and society should “regulate it by beliefs, mores and laws”[44]. The social significance of law could be realised through an analysis of its conceptual structures, being both ‘prescriptive and technical’ and “concerned with the whole range of significant forms of social relationships”[45]. In terms of Brown, the distinction related to the liability for blameworthy conduct which could be realised in terms of its pervasive subjectivity, i.e. the defendants intended to inflict harm on each other, or criteria for public outrage in terms of objective blame, i.e. the defendants’ actions would be perceived by society as unacceptable and the defendants should have realised this fact. This objectivity needs to distinguish when harm may become a criminal offence, relating to the residual prerogative to maintain public safety and preserve the moral welfare of society[46], described as “the practical art of government through rules”[47].
It has been observed that “....laws must have a bare minimum of moral content if they are to serve their function as laws at all”[48], a situation revealed in a now obsolete obiter dicta by Lord Denning during the 1960, reflecting the public ethos at that time on vasectomies, despite the fact that 12 years later the National Health Service (Family Planning) Amendment Act 1972 endorsed the performing of vasectomy operations for contraceptive purposes:

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