2017-03-11 01:11

在这篇文章中我将看科学和科学家的反思主要从两哥特式小说;布莱姆·斯托克的吸血鬼(1994)和罗伯特·路易斯·史蒂文森的杰基尔博士和Hyde先生的奇怪事件(1993)。我看,首先,在某种程度上,这两个文本反映医学科学话语不断具体化,集中程度,这表示,福柯的建议(福柯,1991;福柯,2004,福柯,2004b),一个特定的社会精英宣言知识渐进的所有权的过程。其次,我会看这样的知识的启发,在维多利亚意识随之而来的歧义(Headrick,1988;罗斯,1998,莱德勒,2004),最后,我将驴的程度,虽然表面上显示科技的信心不可动摇,哥特思想的推论是基于好奇的神学理由(明天,1988) 德古拉伯爵的叙事充满了heteroglossial碎片。一次又一次,我们想起在小说中崛起的维多利亚职业阶层和日益分层的第十九世纪的社会。我们不仅可以发现地理和基于类的口音像Van Helsing的混合,Quincy Morris和口音的工人,分散在整个叙事的无数,而且不同的话语围绕技术和医学科学的兴起。例如,我们可以注意到,在不同的时期,西沃德博士用一个反映这种观点的术语和观点来描述自己是一个医学家:


In this essay I will look at the reflection of science and scientists in two major Gothic novels; Bram Stoker’s Dracula (1994) and Robert Louis Stevenson’s The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde (1993). I will look, firstly, at the extent that these two texts reflected the increasing concretization of medico-scientific discourses, concentrating on the extent this that represents, as Foucault suggests (Foucault, 1991; Foucault, 2004, Foucault, 2004b), a process of gradual ownership of enunciative knowledge specific to a social elite. Secondly I will look at the attendant ambiguity that such knowledge inspired in the Victorian consciousness (Headrick, 1988; Laidler, 1998, Roth, 2004) and, lastly, I will asses the extent that, although outwardly displaying an unshakable faith in science and technology, the ideological inferences of Gothicism were based on curiously theological grounds (Morrow, 1988)

The narrative of Dracula is suffused with heteroglossial fragmentation. Time and time again, we are reminded in the novel of the rise of the Victorian professional classes and the increasing stratification of nineteenth century society. We can detect not only the mixing of geographical and class based accents such as those of Van Helsing, Quincy Morris and the myriad of accented workmen that are dispersed throughout the narrative, but also the rise of distinct discourses based around technology and medical science. We can note, for instance, that at various times, Dr Seward characterizes himself as a man of medicine by employing terms and points of references that reflect just this: